Religion and Hate Victimization among Youth: Contexts, Consequences and Adaptive Strategies

Project Synopsis

Title: Religion and Hate Victimization among Youth: Contexts, Consequences and Adaptive Strategies

Religion remains a source of meaning for billions of people in today’s world. For many, religion is a crucial part of their identity, which sets the guidelines for their way of living, form of communicating, their dress code and behaviour. Being a member of a religious group can be a source of protection as well as a source of risk, depending on the level of prejudices against the group. The connection of religion to youth crime victimisation therefore addresses the need to study the matter. This project examines how religious affiliation and beliefs are linked to crime victimisation among young people while focusing on victimisation risks in different places, national/international contexts, as well as online/ offline spheres. The possible consequences of religion-based victimisation in terms of revenge will be also examined. Additionally, it will be explored how religious youth navigate in social environments, including the social media, to avoid risky situations, hate-based attacks, and crime victimisation. The role of externally visible cues in triggering hate-motivated attacks against religious identities will be studied as well. Furthermore, the impacts of the religious neighbourhood on religious-based youth victimisation as well as religious disaffiliation as a possible risk factor will be explored. 

host institution
partner organization(s)
early stage researcher

ESR12 Sophie Litvak, PhD Candidate at University of Helsinki


Prof. Janne Kivivuori, University of Helsinki, criminology, homicide, youth crime, methodology of crime surveys


Litvak, S., Kivivuori, J., & Kaakinen, M. (2023). Religion and Hate Crime Victimisation: A Representative Study of Young People in Finland. International Criminology 2023, 1–14.